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Sex, gender, and retinoblastoma: analysis of 4351 patients from 153 countries

Author: Fabian et al.
Year of publication: 2021
Journal: Eye
  This is a cross-sectional analysis including 4351 treatment-naive retinoblastoma patients from 153 countries. The goal of the study was to investigate whether sex predilection exists for this childhood eye cancer. For the entire sample, the mean retinoblastoma sex ratio, 1.20, was higher than the weighted global sex ratio at birth, 1.07 (p < 0.001). Analysis at economic grouping, continent, and country-level demonstrated differences in the sex ratio in the sample compared to the ratio at birth in lower-middle-income countries (n = 1940), 1.23 vs. 1.07 (p = 0.019); Asia (n = 2276), 1.28 vs. 1.06 (p < 0.001); and India (n = 558), 1.52 vs. 1.11 (p = 0.008). Sensitivity analysis, excluding data from India, showed that differences remained significant for the remaining sample (χ2 = 6.925, corrected p = 0.025) and for Asia (χ2 = 5.084, corrected p = 0.036). Excluding data from Asia, differences for the remaining sample were nonsignificant (χ2 = 2.205, p = 0.14). In conclusion, the study did not find any proof of sex predilection in retinoblastoma, which is estimated to include over half of new retinoblastoma patients worldwide in 2017. The high male to female ratio found in Asian countries, India in specific, which may have had an impact on global-level analysis, is likely due to gender discrimination in access to care in these countries, rather than a biological difference between sexes.  

From the Publications Archives

A ten-year study of Retinoblastoma in Uganda: An approach to improving outcome with limited resources

Author: Waddell et al.
Year of publication: 2020
Journal: Cancer Epidemiology

This is a prospective study documenting a series of children with RB treated at Ruharo Eye Centre between December 2009 and November 2019. Survival by stage of RB, number of eyes affected, and visual acuity were assessed. The study found…

Fundal Reflex Test

Author: Andrew Blaikie
Year of publication: 2021

As part of the University of St Andrews Arclight Project Social Enterprise, a number of instructional videos were developed including how to perform and interpret the fundal (aka ‘red’) reflex test – https://youtu.be/wCdbRxsWa6U. This test can help identify childhood eye…

Tumor Board Conferences for Multidisciplinary Skin Cancer Management: A Survey of US Cancer Centers

Author: Mori et al.
Year of publication: 2018
Journal: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network

Mori et al. have administered a cross-sectional online survey to physician leaders of 59 skin cancer tumor board conferences (TBCs) at NCI-designated Comprehensive and Clinical Cancer Centers. A total of 38 physicians (72%) completed the survey. Half of the meeting…

How Telemedicine and Centralized Care Changed the Natural History of Retinoblastoma in a Developing Country: Analysis of 478 Patients

Author: Yousef et al.
Year of publication: 2020
Journal: Ophthalmology

The Yousef et al. study has reviewed the outcomes of 478 retinoblastoma patients who were treated at King Hussein Cancer Centre after implementing a telemedicine-based eye salvage program with St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital and compared that with outcomes for…

Intravitreal melphalan as salvage therapy for refractory retinal and subretinal retinoblastoma

Author: Francis et al.
Year of publication: 2016
Journal: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports

A case series of three patients by Francis et al. has investigated the response and toxicity of intravitreal melphalan treatment for non-vitreous retinoblastoma that was refractory to multiple-course ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC). Patients Three eyes received a median of 7…

The Recognition of Cavitary Retinoblastoma Tumors- Implications for Management and Genetic Analysis

Author: Chaudhry et al.
Year of publication: 2018
Journal: Retina

The Chaudhry et al. study has assessed the role of consolidating adjuvant therapy and the phenotype-genotype correlation in patients with retinoblastomas having ophthalmoscopically visible cavities between 2004 and 2014 in whom 4 to 6 cycles of systemic chemotherapy were given….

Development of a pediatric ophthalmology academic partnership between Canada and Ethiopia: a situational analysis

Author: Kletke et al.
Year of publication: 2020
Journal: BMC Medical Education

The aim of this situational analysis was to assess the feasibility of implementing a pediatric ophthalmology fellowship at Addis Ababa University with support from the University of Toronto, modeled by successful postgraduate medical education within Toronto Addis Ababa Academic Collaboration….